Description[ edit ] "The eroductions are the limpest of softcore, and though there is much breast and buttock display, though there are simulations of intercourse, none of the working parts are ever shown.
Indeed, one pubic hair breaks an unwritten but closely observed code. Though this last problem is solved by shaving the actresses, the larger remains: This restriction forced Japanese filmmakers to develop sometimes elaborate means of avoiding showing the "working parts", as author Donald Richie puts it.
When this was not done, the most common alternative techniques are digital scrambling, covering the prohibited area with a black box or a fuzzy white spot, known as a mosaic or " fogging. Donald Richie says, "American pornography is kept forever on its elemental level because, showing all, it need do nothing else; Japanese eroductions have to do something else since they cannot show all.
The stultified impulse has created some extraordinary works of art, a few films among them. None of these, however, are found among eroductions. Contrasting the pink film with Western pornographic films , Pia Harritz says, "What really stands out is the ability of pinku eiga to engage the spectator in more than just scenes with close-ups of genitals and finally the complexity in the representation of gender and the human mind. The first kiss to be seen in Japanese film—discreetly half-hidden by an umbrella—caused a national sensation in Teas introduced female nudity into international cinema, and were imported to Japan without problem.
Kobayashi remained active in directing pink films until the s. Tamaki Katori , the star of the film, went on to become one of the leading early pink film stars, appearing in over , and earning the title "Pink Princess". Takechi's Black Snow , resulted in the director's arrest on charges of obscenity and a high-profile trial, which became a major battle between Japan's intellectuals and the establishment. Takechi won the lawsuit, and the publicity surrounding the trial helped bring about a boom in the production of pink films.
Independent studios such as Nihon Cinema and World Eiga made dozens of cheap, profitable "eroductions". Known as "The Pink Godfather",  and called "the most important director to emerge in the pink film genre",  Wakamatsu's independent productions are critically respected works usually concerned with sex and extreme violence mixed with political messages.
Toei Pinky Violence[ edit ] Until the late s, the "pink film" market was almost entirely the domain of low-budget independent companies. At the beginning of the s, now losing their audiences to television and imported American films, Japan's major film studios were struggling for survival.
In , Richie reported, "In Japan, the eroduction is the only type of picture that retains an assured patronage. In films like his ero-guro series and Joys of Torture series of the late s director Teruo Ishii provided a model for Toei's sexploitation ventures by "establishing a queasy mix of comedy and torture.
Several of these films have the theme of strong women exacting violent revenge for past injustices. Starting with Female Convict Scorpion , the Scorpion series starred Meiko Kaji , who had left Nikkatsu Studios to distance herself from their Roman Porno series. Toei also set the standard for Japanese nunsploitation films a subgenre imported from Italy with the critically acclaimed School of the Holy Beast directed by Norifumi Suzuki.
Toei also produced a whole series of erotic samurai pictures such as Bohachi Bushido: Nikkatsu Roman Porno[ edit ] See also: List of Nikkatsu Roman Porno films and Category: Nikkatsu Roman Porno In Takashi Itamochi, president of Nikkatsu, Japan's oldest major film studio, decided to stop his own company's involvement with action films and start making sexploitation films.
Affair In the Afternoon , starring Kazuko Shirakawa. Director Masaru Konuma says that the process of making Roman Porno was the same as that of making a pink film except for the higher budget. Nikkatsu gave its Roman porno directors a great deal of artistic freedom in creating their films, as long as they met the official minimum quota of four nude or sex scenes per hour. Kumashiro directed a string of financial and critical hits unprecedented in Japanese cinematic history, including Ichijo's Wet Desire and Woman with Red Hair , starring Junko Miyashita.
Nikkatsu responded by discontinuing their Roman Porno line. Bed Partner was the final film of the venerable year-old Roman Porno series. Nikkatsu continued to distribute films under the name Ropponica, and pink films through Excess Films, however these were not nearly as popular or critically respected as the Roman Porno series had been in its heyday.
Coming to prominence in the s, a time when the theatrical porn film was facing considerable difficulties on several fronts, this group is known for elevating the pink film above its low origins by concentrating on technical finesse and narrative content. Some critics dubbed the style of their films "pink art".
Beautiful Mystery ,  for Nikkatsu's ENK Productions, which was founded in to focus on gay-themed pink films. Indeed, at this time the pink film was viewed as one of the last refuges of the " auteur " in Japan. So long as the director provided the requisite number of sex scenes, he was free to explore his own thematic and artistic interests.
Coming to prominence during one of the most precarious times for the pink film, these directors worked under the assumption that each film could be their last, and so largely ignored their audience to concentrate on intensely personal, experimental themes.
These directors even broke one of the fundamental pink rules by cutting down in the sex scenes in pursuit of their own artistic concerns.
Their films were considered "difficult"—dark, complex, and largely unpopular with the older pink audience. On the other hand, Roland Domenig, in his essay on the pink film, says that their work offers "a refreshing contrast to the formulaic and stereotyped films that make up the larger part of pink eiga production, and are strongly influenced by the notion of the filmmaker as auteur.
Their films display individualistic styles and introspective character indicative of the insecurity of Japan's post-bubble generation. Director Mitsuru Meike's The Glamorous Life of Sachiko Hanai made an impression in international film festivals and gained critical praise.
Some notable directors of pink films include: