Story read chemical sex stimulant. Drug experts issue warning over 'chem-sex' parties.



Story read chemical sex stimulant

Story read chemical sex stimulant

Supposedly released whenever we experience something pleasurable, it's forever linked to salacious stories of sex, drugs and wild partying in the popular press. The Kim Kardashian of neurotransmitters, it gives instant appeal to listless reporting and gives editors an excuse to drop some booty on the science pages. There are too many bad examples to mention in detail, but I have some favourites.

The dopamine stereotype is not just reserved to the jauntier sections of the tabloid press. It can also be used as a way of making any of your views sound scientific.

It's a simple formula — if you disagree with something, just say it releases dopamine and imply it must be dangerously addictive. It was clearly just a smokescreen for the views of gun-hating liberals. Now at this point, some of you may be worrying that I'm about to pour cold water on the pop science party and forever banish booty to the gossip columns, but I like to think that knowing the details is a more like putting acid in the punch bowl.

Dopamine is indeed involved in addiction, but it isn't a "pleasure chemical". In fact, dopamine has lots of functions in the brain — being involved in everything from regulating movement to the control of attention. In great part, its effects depend on which of the brain's pathways it is operating in. The wonderfully named tuberoinfundibular pathway regulates hormone release and is important in stimulating the production of breast milk.

This is why an unfortunate side-effect of antipsychotic medication used to treat schizophrenia, which primarily alters the dopamine system, can be lactation, even in men. But when you hear about dopamine in the press, it's usually a vague reference to the role of dopamine in the mesolimbic pathway — a small but important brain tract that connects a deep brain area called the nucleus accumbens to the frontal lobes.

Even here, however, dopamine has differing effects because while the chemical is the same, there are various forms of receptors that detect the presence of dopamine but do something different, depending on their type. The type that makes the glamour mags is the D2 family of receptors, which are affected by stimulants but are also linked to episodes of psychosis. It is no accident that too much speed or cocaine can make you paranoid.

The most widely accepted theory of what mesolimbic dopamine is supposed to do concerns its role as a feedback signal for predicting rewards. The theory goes that, a bit like me, it's the nerd at the pool party who gives a running commentary on how well you're doing with the temptations on offer. If you get lucky, a surge of dopamine signals a success, but — and this is where the "pleasure chemical" idea breaks down — it also signals when you only manage an uncomfortable near-miss.

This works well when success depends on skill but falsely compels us in games of chance. Addictive drugs alter this motivational system but, crucially, this is not the same as their pleasurable effect. Many long-term addicts report that they get little joy from their hit but that they still feel compelled to continue. It also seems that how the drugs affect the neurochemical signal is also key. If this is making your head spin, it's worth saying that there is much more down the dopamine rabbit hole, as the brain's motivational system is complex to the point where the neurotransmitter is also involved in motivation to avoid unpleasant experiences.

Even though it's wrong, it's just too useful a media prop to be tossed aside, like some half-smoked cigarette. After all, anything that can bring Kim and Katy to the party can't be an empty high… can it?

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A View to a Thrill



Story read chemical sex stimulant

Supposedly released whenever we experience something pleasurable, it's forever linked to salacious stories of sex, drugs and wild partying in the popular press. The Kim Kardashian of neurotransmitters, it gives instant appeal to listless reporting and gives editors an excuse to drop some booty on the science pages. There are too many bad examples to mention in detail, but I have some favourites. The dopamine stereotype is not just reserved to the jauntier sections of the tabloid press.

It can also be used as a way of making any of your views sound scientific. It's a simple formula — if you disagree with something, just say it releases dopamine and imply it must be dangerously addictive. It was clearly just a smokescreen for the views of gun-hating liberals. Now at this point, some of you may be worrying that I'm about to pour cold water on the pop science party and forever banish booty to the gossip columns, but I like to think that knowing the details is a more like putting acid in the punch bowl.

Dopamine is indeed involved in addiction, but it isn't a "pleasure chemical". In fact, dopamine has lots of functions in the brain — being involved in everything from regulating movement to the control of attention. In great part, its effects depend on which of the brain's pathways it is operating in.

The wonderfully named tuberoinfundibular pathway regulates hormone release and is important in stimulating the production of breast milk. This is why an unfortunate side-effect of antipsychotic medication used to treat schizophrenia, which primarily alters the dopamine system, can be lactation, even in men. But when you hear about dopamine in the press, it's usually a vague reference to the role of dopamine in the mesolimbic pathway — a small but important brain tract that connects a deep brain area called the nucleus accumbens to the frontal lobes.

Even here, however, dopamine has differing effects because while the chemical is the same, there are various forms of receptors that detect the presence of dopamine but do something different, depending on their type.

The type that makes the glamour mags is the D2 family of receptors, which are affected by stimulants but are also linked to episodes of psychosis. It is no accident that too much speed or cocaine can make you paranoid. The most widely accepted theory of what mesolimbic dopamine is supposed to do concerns its role as a feedback signal for predicting rewards.

The theory goes that, a bit like me, it's the nerd at the pool party who gives a running commentary on how well you're doing with the temptations on offer.

If you get lucky, a surge of dopamine signals a success, but — and this is where the "pleasure chemical" idea breaks down — it also signals when you only manage an uncomfortable near-miss.

This works well when success depends on skill but falsely compels us in games of chance. Addictive drugs alter this motivational system but, crucially, this is not the same as their pleasurable effect.

Many long-term addicts report that they get little joy from their hit but that they still feel compelled to continue. It also seems that how the drugs affect the neurochemical signal is also key. If this is making your head spin, it's worth saying that there is much more down the dopamine rabbit hole, as the brain's motivational system is complex to the point where the neurotransmitter is also involved in motivation to avoid unpleasant experiences.

Even though it's wrong, it's just too useful a media prop to be tossed aside, like some half-smoked cigarette. After all, anything that can bring Kim and Katy to the party can't be an empty high… can it?

Story read chemical sex stimulant

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4 Comments

  1. They are often marketed online as legal highs or "research chemicals". The dopamine stereotype is not just reserved to the jauntier sections of the tabloid press.

  2. Slash fiction allows people the freedom to share stimulating things that can be counter-cultural. The report says that in some EU countries these substances are now targeting the main sectors of the drug market. Even though it's wrong, it's just too useful a media prop to be tossed aside, like some half-smoked cigarette.

  3. One study investigating olfactory sexual stimulation found that men experience sexual arousal in response to a female perfume. Many sexual fantasies are shared between men and women, possibly because of cultural influence.

  4. In one mood induction study, exposure to certain music resulted in significantly greater penile tumescence and subjective sexual arousal for men.

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