Media[ edit ] Some popular black-and-white media of the past include: While some color film processes including hand coloring were experimented with and in limited use from the earliest days of motion pictures, the switch from most films being in black-and-white to most being in color was gradual, taking place from the s to the s. Even when most film studios had the capability to make color films, the technology's popularity was limited, as using the Technicolor process was expensive and the process cumbersome.
For many years, it was not possible for films in color to render realistic hues, thus its use was restricted to historical films or musicals until the s, while many directors preferred to use black-and-white stock. For the years —, a separate Academy Award for Best Art Direction was given for black-and-white movies along with one for color. Television programs were first transmitted in black-and-white. Some color broadcasts in the U. Color television became more widespread in the U. Canada began airing color television in while the United Kingdom began to use an entirely different color system from July known as PAL.
The Republic of Ireland followed in New Zealand began color broadcasting in , and Australia experimented with color television in but continued to broadcast in black-and-white until , and New Zealand experimented with color broadcasting in but didn't convert until In China , black-and-white television sets were the norm until as late as the s, color TVs not outselling them until about While seldom used professionally now, many consumer camcorders have the ability to record in black-and-white.
Photographs were either black-and-white or shades of sepia. Color photography was originally rare and expensive and again often containing inaccurate hues. Color photography became more common from the midth century. Today, black-and-white is a niche market for photographers who use the medium for artistic purposes. This can take the form of black-and-white film or digital conversion to grayscale, with optional digital image editing manipulation to enhance the results.
For amateur use certain companies such as Kodak manufactured black-and-white disposable cameras until Also, certain films are produced today which give black-and-white images using the ubiquitous C41 color process. Most American newspapers were black-and-white until the early s; The New York Times and The Washington Post remained in black-and-white until the s. Some claim that USA Today was the major impetus for the change to color.
In the UK, color was only slowly introduced from the mids. Even today, many newspapers restrict color photographs to the front and other prominent pages since mass-producing photographs in black-and-white is considerably less expensive than color. Similarly, daily comic strips in newspapers were traditionally black-and-white with color reserved for Sunday strips.
Color printing is more expensive. Sometimes color is reserved for the cover. Magazines such as Jet magazine were either all or mostly black-and-white until the end of the s when it became all-color. Manga Japanese or Japanese-influenced comics are typically published in black-and-white although now it is part of its image.
Many school yearbooks are still entirely or mostly in black-and-white. The British film A Matter of Life and Death depicts the other world in black-and-white a character says "one is starved of Technicolor … up there" , and earthly events in color. Similarly, Wim Wenders 's film Wings of Desire uses sepia-tone black-and-white for the scenes shot from the angels' perspective. When Damiel, the angel the film's main character , becomes a human the film changes to color, emphasising his new "real life" view of the world.
The films Pleasantville , and Aro Tolbukhin. En la mente del asesino , play with the concept of black-and-white as an anachronism , using it to selectively portray scenes and characters who are either more or less outdated or duller than the characters and scenes shot in full-color.
This manipulation of color is utilized in the film Sin City and the occasional television commercial. The film American History X is told in a nonlinear narrative in which the portions of the plot that take place "in the past" are shown entirely in black and white, while the "present" storyline's scenes are displayed in color. In the documentary film Night and Fog a mix of black-and-white documentary footage is contrasted with color film of the present. In a black and white pre-credits opening sequence in the Bond film, Casino Royale , a young James Bond played by Daniel Craig gains his licence to kill and status as a 00 agent by assassinating the traitorous MI6 section chief Dryden at the British Embassy in Prague, as well as his terrorist contact, Fisher, in a bathroom in Lahore.
The remainder of the film starting with the opening credits is shown in color. The reasons are frequently commercial, as it is difficult to sell a film for television broadcasting if the film is not in color. The use of black-and-white in the mass media often connotes something "nostalgic" or historic.
The film director Woody Allen has used black-and-white a number of times since Manhattan , which also had a George Gershwin derived score. The makers of The Good German used camera lens from the s, and other equipment from that era, so that their black-and-white film imitated the look of early noir. In fact, monochrome film stock is now rarely used at the time of shooting, even if the films are intended to be presented theatrically in black-and-white.
Raging Bull and Clerks are two of the few well-known modern films deliberately shot in black-and-white. In the case of Clerks, because of the extremely low budget, the production team could not afford the added costs of shooting in color. Although the difference in film stock price would have been slight, the store's fluorescent lights could not have been used to light for color.
By shooting in black-and-white, the filmmakers did not have to rent lighting equipment. The movie Pi is filmed entirely in black-and-white, with a grainy effect until the end. In black-and-white still photography , many photographers choose to shoot in solely black-and-white since the stark contrasts enhance the subject matter.
Some formal photo portraits still use black-and-white. Many visual-art photographers use black-and-white in their work. As a form of censorship when movies and TV series are aired on Philippine television , many gory scenes are shown in black-and-white. Sometimes the exposure of innards or other scenes too bloody or gruesome are also blurred, not just rendered in monochrome, in compliance with Philippine broadcasting standards.
Computing[ edit ] Most computers had monochrome black-and-white, black and green, or black and amber screens until the late s, although some home computers could be connected to television screens to eliminate the extra cost of a monitor. Early videogame consoles such as the Atari supported both black-and-white and color modes via a switch, as did some of the early home computers; this was to accommodate black-and-white TV sets, which would display a color signal poorly.
Typically a different shading scheme would be used for the display in the black-and-white mode. In computing terminology, black-and-white is sometimes used to refer to a binary image consisting solely of pure black pixels and pure white pixels; what would normally be called a black-and-white image, that is, an image containing shades of gray, is referred to in this context as grayscale.