Timeline of non-sexual social nudity Nudity in social contexts has been practised in various forms by many cultures at all time periods. The commune was based in Matheran and had just three members at the beginning; Crawford and two sons of an Anglican missionary, Andrew and Kellogg Calderwood.
Heinrich Pudor , under the pseudonym Heinrich Scham, who coined the term Nacktkultur. In he went on to write a three volume treatise with his new term as its title, which discussed the benefits of nudity in co-education and advocated participating in sports while being free of cumbersome clothing. Germany published the first journal of nudism between and The first organized club for nudists on a large scale, Freilichtpark Free-Light Park , was opened near Hamburg in by Paul Zimmerman.
They became convinced of the importance of natural foods and the natural environment on human well-being and health. They named this concept French: The profound effect of clean air and sunlight on human bodies became evident to them and so nudity became a part of their naturism. Naturism became a more widespread phenomenon in the s, in Germany , the United Kingdom , France and other European countries and spread to the United States where it became established in the s.
More recently, naturist holiday options have expanded to include cruises. In , the INF defined naturism as: The naturist philosophy has several sources, many of which can be traced back to early 20th century health and fitness philosophies in Germany and England , although the concepts of returning to nature and creating equality have much deeper roots. Gymnosophy and religious nakedness[ edit ] See also: Gymnosophist and American Gymnosophical Association In the 4th century BC, Alexander the Great encountered, in India, wandering groups of naked holy men whom he dubbed the naked philosophers.
The philosopher Onesicritus investigated their beliefs and lifestyle. Pyrrho the Sceptic was impressed and incorporated nudity into his philosophy. The Gymnosophists were Hindus , but Jain and Ajivika monks practiced nudity as a statement that they had given up all worldly goods. Nudity was not a new concept to the Greeks as the Olympic Games founded in BC were exclusively male and nude events. Gymnastics and gymnasium share the same root word Gr gymnos.
Historically, the Adamites , a Gnostic sect, practiced religious nudism. Another religious sect, the Doukhobors , migrated from Russia to western Canada. They practice or practiced occasional nudity, such as while working in the farm fields. Members of one of the three subdivisions of Canadian Doukhobors, the small radical Sons of Freedom group, went so far in the s as to publicly strip in mass public demonstrations to protest against government policies which were meant to assimilate them.
Although beliefs vary, a common theme is that much of Christianity has misinterpreted the events regarding the Garden of Eden , and God was displeased with Adam and Eve for covering their bodies with fig leaves. The English Gymnosophical Society was formed in and became the New Gymnosophy Society in ; they purchased land at 'Bricketts Wood' to become Britain's first nudist colony.
One of the first members was Gerald Gardner , who in established the 'Five Acres Club' nearby, ostensibly as a nudist club, but as a front for Wiccans , as witchcraft was illegal in England until The Digambar , one of the two main divisions of the Jain religion of India, remain skyclad , or naked, though generally it is practiced by males.
Wiccans have adopted this wording and some practice their rituals skyclad. Heinrich Pudor wrote on methods to improve social hygiene in his book Nackende Menschen und Jauchzen der Zukunft Naked people and the future of Mankind and then Nacktkultur Nude Culture. It prescribes an austere lifestyle and nudity. In his Utopia, everyone was to be Germanic with blue eyes and blonde hair. He used Organic-Rhythmic exercises in Berlin schools in the s. In the early s he was out of favour and arrested.
By , he had turned full circle and was writing religious texts. Werner Zimmermann was Swiss. He promoted Progressive education , encouraging naked Physical education to eliminate body guilt and to encourage openness that would lift the repression of the human spirit, which he saw as the cause of sexual deviation.
The basic position was that the human body, in and of itself, was neither sinful nor obscene. This was adopted into the emerging philosophy that created the modern Western nudist movement. Reasons that have at times been given: Sun is a form of medicine.
Psychologically — rapport with other humans including equality and respect. Social nudity leads to acceptance in spite of differences in age, body shape, fitness, and health. Never before did I get so close to Nature; never before did she come so close to me Nature was naked, and I was also Sweet, sane, still Nakedness in Nature! Is not nakedness indecent? It is your thought, your sophistication, your fear, your respectability, that is indecent.
There come moods when these clothes of ours are not only too irksome to wear, but are themselves indecent. We cannot adequately appreciate this aspect of nature if we approach it with any taint of human pretense. It will elude us if we allow artifacts like clothing to intervene between ourselves and this Other. To apprehend it, we cannot be naked enough.
This movement was based on the French concept of joie de vivre , the idea of reveling freely in physical sensations and direct experiences and a spontaneous approach to life. Participants plan, meet and ride together en masse on human-powered transport the vast majority on bicycles , but some on skateboards and inline skates , to "deliver a vision of a cleaner, safer, body-positive world. Demographics[ edit ] In , the Federation of Canadian Naturists commissioned a national survey on Canadian attitudes towards nudity  which found that 8.
In , the Naturist Society in the United States sponsored a Gallup poll, which was repeated in ,  which found the following: