In Des Moines, roughly in the center of the state, over two-thirds of the Iowa archaeology and Indians of Iowa When American Indians first arrived in what is now Iowa more than 13, years ago, they were hunters and gatherers living in a Pleistocene glacial landscape. By the time European explorers and traders visited Iowa, American Indians were largely settled farmers with complex economic, social, and political systems.
This transformation happened gradually. During the Archaic period 10,—2, years ago , American Indians adapted to local environments and ecosystems, slowly becoming more sedentary as populations increased. The subsequent Woodland period saw an increased reliance on agriculture and social complexity, with increased use of mounds, ceramics, and specialized subsistence.
During the Late Prehistoric period beginning about AD increased use of maize and social changes led to social flourishing and nucleated settlements. There were numerous Indian tribes living in Iowa at the time of early European exploration. Tribes which arrived in Iowa in the late prehistoric or protohistoric periods include the Illiniwek , Meskwaki , Omaha , and Sauk.
Modern state area highlighted. The first known European explorers to document Iowa were Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet who traveled the Mississippi River in documenting several Indian villages on the Iowa side. The French, before their impending defeat in the French and Indian War , transferred ownership to their ally, Spain. The Sauk and Meskwaki effectively controlled trade on the Mississippi in the late 18th century and early 19th century. The latter, of which in was placed.
Much of Iowa was mapped by Zebulon Pike in ,  but it was not until the construction of Fort Madison in that the U. Fort Madison was built to control trade and establish U. Black Hawk took part in the siege of Fort Madison. Trade continued in furs and lead, but disease and forced population movement decimated Indian cultures and economies. As punishment for the uprising, and as part of a larger settlement strategy, treaties were subsequently designed to remove all Indians from Iowa.
The Sauk and Meskwaki were pushed out of the Mississippi valley in , out of the Iowa River valley in , and out of Iowa altogether in In the Iowa Legislature passed an unprecedented act allowing the Meskawki to purchase the land; Indians were not usually permitted to do so. The Ho-Chunk were removed from Iowa in , and the Dakota were removed by the late s.
Western Iowa around modern Council Bluffs was used as a way station for other tribes being moved west, including the Potawatomi. The first American settlers officially moved to Iowa in June Congress established the Territory of Iowa. President Martin Van Buren appointed Robert Lucas governor of the territory, which at the time had 22 counties and a population of 23, Polk signed Iowa's admission bill into law.
Once admitted to the Union, the state's boundary issues resolved, and most of its land purchased from the Indians, Iowa set its direction to development and organized campaigns for settlers and investors, boasting the young frontier state's rich farmlands, fine citizens, free and open society, and good government.
The first and second Iowa State Fairs were held in the more developed eastern part of the state at Fairfield. Thereafter, the fair moved to locations closer to the center of the state and in found a permanent home in Des Moines. The fair was also a World War II wartime casualty from —, as the fairgrounds were being used as an army supply depot.
Iowa supported the Union during the Civil War, voting heavily for Abraham Lincoln , though there was a strong antiwar " Copperhead " movement among settlers of southern origins and among Catholics. Iowa sent large supplies of food to the armies and the eastern cities. Kirkwood , its first wartime governor. Of a total population of ,, about , men were subjected to military duty. Iowa contributed proportionately more men to Civil War military service than did any other state, north or south, sending more than 75, volunteers to the armed forces, over one-sixth of whom were killed before the Confederates surrendered at Appomattox.
Many died and were buried at Andersonville. Twenty-seven Iowans have been awarded the Medal of Honor , the highest military decoration awarded by the United States government, which was first awarded in the Civil War. Curtis , Francis J.
Herron , and Frederick Steele —and saw many of its generals go on to state and national prominence following the war. Following the Civil War, Iowa's population continued to grow dramatically, from , people in to 1,, in The introduction of railroads in the s and s transformed Iowa into a major agricultural producer. For farmers, the change was significant. Since the beginning of the war in , Iowa farmers had experienced economic prosperity.
In the economic sector, Iowa also has undergone considerable change. Beginning with the first farm-related industries developed in the s, Iowa has experienced a gradual increase in the number of business and manufacturing operations.
Depression, World War II, and the rise of manufacturing, — The transition from an agricultural economy to a mixed economy happened slowly. The Great Depression and World War II accelerated the shift away from smallholder farming to larger farms, and began a trend of urbanization. The period since World War II has witnessed a particular increase in manufacturing operations.
While agriculture continued to be the state's dominant industry, Iowans also produce a wide variety of products including refrigerators, washing machines, fountain pens, farm implements, and food products. The Farm Crisis of the s caused a major recession in Iowa, causing poverty not seen since the Depression.