This pool is 12 by 7 metres 39 by 23 feet , is lined with bricks, and was covered with a tar-based sealant. Roman emperors had private swimming pools in which fish were also kept, hence one of the Latin words for a pool was piscina. Gaius Maecenas was a rich Roman lord and considered one of the first patrons of arts. They were decorated with flights of steps, punkalas or pots of abundance, and scroll design. As early as , six indoor pools with diving boards existed in London, England.
It was formed in , in response to concerns over drownings in the River Medway , especially since would-be rescuers would often drown because they themselves could not swim to safety. The club used to swim in the River Medway, and would hold races, diving competitions and water polo matches.
The South East Gazette July reported an aquatic breakfast party: The coffee was kept hot over a fire; club members had to tread water and drink coffee at the same time. The last swimmers managed to overturn the raft, to the amusement of spectators.
So, bathers gradually became swimmers, and bathing pools became swimming pools. In , Oxford created its first major public indoor pool at Temple Cowley. The modern Olympic Games started in and included swimming races, after which the popularity of swimming pools began to spread.
In the US, the Racquet Club of Philadelphia clubhouse boasts one of the world's first modern above-ground swimming pools. The first swimming pool to go to sea on an ocean liner was installed on the White Star Line 's Adriatic in Standards improved and training became essential. Home swimming pools became popular in the United States after World War II and the publicity given to swimming sports by Hollywood films such as Esther Williams ' Million Dollar Mermaid made a home pool a desirable status symbol.
More than 50 years later, the home or residential swimming pool is a common sight. Some small nations enjoy a thriving swimming pool industry e. List of largest swimming pools Moskva Pool , at one time the largest swimming pool in the world According to the Guinness World Records , the largest swimming pool in the world is San Alfonso del Mar Seawater pool in Algarrobo , Chile. At its deepest, it is 3. It was closed in due to low patronage. The foundations of the palace were converted into the Moskva Pool open-air swimming pool after the process of de-Stalinisation.
This resort is located at m AMSL and has two indoor swimming pools and one outdoor swimming pool, all filled with water from hot springs. Competition pools below Length: Most pools in the world are measured in metres, but in the United States pools are often measured in feet and yards.
In the UK most pools are calibrated in metres, but older pools measured in yards still exist. This pool dimension is commonly used to accommodate water polo. In general, the shorter the pool, the faster the time for the same distance, since the swimmer gains speed from pushing off the wall after each turn at the end of the pool. Most European pools are between 10 m and 50 m wide. The depth of a swimming pool depends on the purpose of the pool, and whether it is open to the public or strictly for private use.
If it is a private casual, relaxing pool, it may go from 1. If it is a public pool designed for diving, it may slope from 3. A children's play pool may be from 0. Most public pools have differing depths to accommodate different swimmer requirements. In many jurisdictions, it is a requirement to show the water depth with clearly marked depths affixed to the pool walls. They can be of any size and shape, and inground or above ground.
Most pools are permanent fixtures, while others are temporary, collapsible structures. Private pools[ edit ] Private pools are usually smaller than public pools, on average 3. Privately owned outdoor pools in backyards or gardens started to proliferate in the s in regions with warm summer climates, particularly in the United States with desegregation. The main types of in-ground pools are gunite shotcrete , concrete, vinyl -lined, and one-piece fiberglass shells.
Many countries now have strict pool fencing requirements for private swimming pools, which require pool areas to be isolated so that unauthorized children younger than six years cannot enter. Many countries require a similar level of protection for the children residing in or visiting the house, although many pool owners prefer the visual aspect of the pool in close proximity to their living areas, and will not provide this level of protection.
There is no consensus between states or countries on the requirements to fence private swimming pools, and in many places they are not required at all, particularly in rural settings. They are used mostly outdoors in yards, are typically shallow, and often their sides are inflated with air to stay rigid. When finished, the water and air can be let out and this type of pool can be folded up for convenient storage.
They are regarded in the swimming pool industry as "splasher" pools intended for cooling off and amusing toddlers and children, not for swimming, hence the alternate name of "kiddie" pools. They are often blown up with air so they are soft but still reasonably rugged, and can float in water. Public pools[ edit ] Tooting Bec Lido, in South London Public pools are often part of a larger leisure centre or recreational complex.
These centres often have more than one pool, such as an indoor heated pool, an outdoor chlorinated , saltwater or ozonated pool which may be heated or unheated, a shallower children's pool, and a paddling pool for toddlers and infants.
There may also be a sauna and one or more hot tubs or spa pools " jacuzzis ". Many upscale hotels and holiday resorts have a swimming pool for use by their guests. If a pool is in a separate building, the building may be called a natatorium. The building may sometimes also have facilities for related activities, such as a diving tank. Larger pools sometimes have a diving board affixed at one edge above the water. There are also elaborate pools with artificial waterfalls , fountains, splash pads , wave machines, varying depths of water, bridges, and island bars.
Some swimming facilities have lockers for clothing and other belongings. The lockers can require a coin to be inserted in a slot, either as deposit or payment. There are often also lifeguards to ensure the safety of users. Wading or paddling pools are shallow bodies of water intended for use by small children, usually in parks.
Concrete wading pools come in many shapes, traditionally rectangle, square or circle. Some are filled and drained daily due to lack of a filter system. Staff chlorinate the water to ensure health and safety standards. Competition pools are generally indoors and heated to enable their use all year round, and to more easily comply with the regulations regarding temperature, lighting, and automatic officiating equipment.
An Olympic-size swimming pool first used at the Olympics is a pool that meets FINA's additional standards for the Olympic Games and for world championship events. There are also regulations for color of lane rope, positioning of backstroke flags 5 metres from each wall , and so on. Touchpads are mounted on both walls for long course meets and each end for short course.
A pool may be referred to as fast or slow, depending on its physical layout. Exercise pools[ edit ] In the last two decades, a new style of pool has gained popularity. These consist of a small vessel usually about 2. These pools have several names, such as swim spas, swimming machines , or swim systems. They are all examples of different modes of resistance swimming.
Hot tubs and spa pools[ edit ] This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. January Learn how and when to remove this template message A home spa Hot tubs and spa pools are common heated pools used for relaxation and sometimes for therapy. Commercial spas are common in the swimming pool area or sauna area of a health club or fitness centre, in men's clubs, women's clubs, motels and exclusive five-star hotel suites. Spa clubs may have very large pools, some segmented into increasing temperatures. In Japan, men's clubs with many spas of different size and temperature are common.
Commercial spas are generally made of concrete, with a mosaic tiled interior. More recently with the innovation of the pre-form composite method where mosaic tiles are bonded to the shell this enables commercial spas to be completely factory manufactured to specification and delivered in one piece. Hot tubs are typically made somewhat like a wine barrel with straight sides, from wood such as Californian redwood held in place by metal hoops.
Immersion of the head is not recommended in spas or hot tubs due to a potential risk of underwater entrapment from the pump suction forces.
However, commercial installations in many countries must comply with various safety standards which reduce this risk considerably. Home spas are a worldwide retail item in western countries since the s, and are sold in dedicated spa stores, pool shops, department stores , the Internet, and catalog sales books. They are almost always made from heat-extruded acrylic sheet Perspex , often colored in marble look-alike patterns.
There is often a mid-depth seating or lounging system, and contoured lounger style reclining seats are common. Upmarket spas include various jet nozzles massage, pulsating, etc. Many pools are incorporated in a redwood or simulated wood surround, and are termed "portable" as they may be placed on a patio rather than sunken into a permanent location. Some portable spas are shallow and narrow enough to fit sideways through a standard door and be used inside a room.
Low power electric immersion heaters are common with home spas. Whirlpool tubs first became popular in America during the s and s. A spa is also called a "jacuzzi" in USA since the word became a generic after plumbing component manufacturer Jacuzzi introduced the "spa whirlpool" in Air bubbles may be introduced into the nozzles via an air-bleed venturi pump that combines cooler air with the incoming heated water to cool the pool if the temperature rises uncomfortably high.
Some spas have a constant stream of bubbles fed via the seating area of the pool, or a footwell area. This is more common as a temperature control device where the heated water comes from a natural uncontrolled heat geothermal source, rather than artificially heated. Bromine or mineral sanitizers are often recommended as sanitizers for spas because chlorine dissipates at a high temperature thereby heightening its strong chemical smell. Ozone is an effective bactericide and is commonly included in the circulation system with cartridge filtration, but not with sand media filtration due to clogging problems with turbid body fats.
Ocean pools[ edit ] An ocean pool at Coogee in Sydney, Australia In the early 20th century, especially in Australia, ocean pools were built, typically on headlands by enclosing part of the rock shelf, with water circulated through the pools by flooding from tidal tanks or by regular flooding over the side of the pools at high tide.