To investigate how the Chinese make love. The frequency of sexual intercourse per month is less than 10 times in The results of the present study indicated that most men and women in China could enjoy their sex lives through the most common way: Although masturbation and oral sex are two of the common sex activities, part of the adults still had a negative attitude towards the two activities, especially women.
Introduction Recently, the sexual attitude, knowledge and behavior in China had been more and more attentioned by experts. It was found that the attitudes toward sexuality in China, since ancient time, a patriarchal society, were negative and repressive, and sexual behavior was restricted and forbidden outside of wedlock, and it was viewed as having a solely reproductive role  -.
And it was also found the sexual beliefs and practices of Chinese had been more and more influenced by western liberally sexual belief  -. However, the area of how the Chinese make love, the most essential elements of sex, had seldom been investigated, which lead to knowledge gaps in this area in China.
The aim of the present research is to focus on the area which is seldom attentioned in China and to preliminarily clarify the difference of attitude and experience of making love between the two genders in Tianhe community Guangzhou, China , in the field of masturbation, sexual foreplay, oral sex, sexual intercourse and coordination with sexual partner, self-evaluation of sexual function.
Setting and Population In Tianhe community Guangzhou, China , a random sampled survey of the Chinese how to make love was carried out from Jan. The information related to sociodemographics, health status was also included in this study. To be eligible for this study, a person needed to meet the following criteria: A total of female and male adults in Tianhe community Guangzhou, China were investigated.
Among those, female mean age was All data were obtained during this 2-h, face-to-face interview. Questionnaire Contents A questionnaire was developed, based on the objectives of the study.
The questionnaire was refined through pilot testing and cognitive interview. No names were included in the answer sheets to ensure confidentiality. The questionnaire contained questions in the following areas: Prior to fulfilling the questionnaire, the interviewers demonstrated that the personal information on the questionnaires neither be disclosed nor publicized. After respondents completing a paper, snacks, soft drinks were offered as incentives for participation.
Statistical Analysis Descriptive statistics included means and standard deviations for continuous variables and percentages for categorical variables. Categorical variables were compared using Pearson Chi square, and Fisher exact tests as appropriate. All tests were two tailed, and a P value less than 0. Analyses were performed using SPSS version Results Questionnaires of 45 female and 71 male participants were incomplete.
The reasons were mainly: Demographic characteristics of the sample were presented in Table 1. Demographic characteristics of the sample. Female adults with higher education reported to require more passionate foreplay and less passive foreplay than those who received lower education Oral Sex The percentage of female adults who could accept oral sex, either gets it passively or do it actively, is much lower than the percentage of their male counterparts No correlation between education and their attitude of oral sex was observed in this survey.
Among the female adults, Intercourse The frequency of sexual intercourse was divided into two groups, less than 10 times per month and at least 10 times per month. The survey reported Although there were no significant variations among male and female adults by specialty, respondents with higher education more likely to have sexual intercourse less than 10 times per month than their counterparts with lower education female: Regarding the conversion of sexual position, it was more common among male adults than female adults Similar to the report of the frequency of sexual life, although there were no significant variations among male and female adults by specialty, respondents with higher education more likely to be fond of converting position than their counterparts with lower education female: Coordination with the Sexual Partner Much more male adults than female adults could coordinate with their sexual partner A little more than half of female adults with high education and lower education could coordinate with their sexual partner Approximately seven in ten male adults either higher education or lower education could coordinate with their sexual partner Self-Evaluation of Sexual Function Of the female adults with higher education, Among the male adults, more people with higher education felt self-confident of their sexual function than the ones with lower education, and they were less self-abase of their sexual function Discussion This is the first report to systematically investigate Chinese how to make love.
In this study, we found most men and women in Tianhe community Guangzhou, China could enjoy their sex lives through the most common way sexual intercourse. Men were more active than women in the leading position of sexual intercourse. Although masturbation and oral sex is one of the common sex activities, part of the adults still had negative attitude of these two activities, and especially for women. Masturbation From a public health perspective, masturbation is considered as a safe sexual activity.
It has been promoted as a safe alternative to higher risk sexual practices by both researchers and clinicians . It is a common sexual practice with significant variations in reporting between men and women . In ancient China, masturbation was viewed as a cause for illnesses, and something unhygienic and ashamed.
Part of the surveyors acknowledged masturbatory behavior, and the others influenced by the Confucian and Taoist sexual philosophy and the relatively conservative atmosphere, refused to present the truth.
In this survey, more men than women reported masturbatory behavior than women, and this tendency was also presented in other nations.
Female and male adults with different levels of education have nearly the same population with masturbation, while in Britain, a survey  reported masturbation increased with higher levels of education and social class, and these associations have been attributed to greater access to public debate, to information, and to sex education, which may help reduce fears and guilt, and thus increased willingness to report masturbation.
It can be predicted that the relative conservative social opinion in China rather than the education level negatively influenced the attitude of people in China more.
Foreplay The excitation and euphoria of the couple when they having sexual lives could affect each other, and thus encourage the partner. The facial expression, posture and tone could all be the approach that triggers sex pleasant sensation. Donnelly and Straus  indicated that because of traditional gender role socialization and higher levels of sexual activity in all areas both fantasy and behavior , males are aroused at higher levels than women.
The same situation appeared in this survey, more female adults than male adults need passionate foreplay to require a sexual arousal. Moreover, sexual conservative beliefs seem to be closely related to a certain extent to arousal difficulties in women, which seemed to be one reason that more females than males required for passionate foreplay. Another often-mentioned explanation for male-female differences in sexual foreplay focuses on biological differences between males and females.
This argument posits that because the genetic and hormonal make-ups of males and females differ, it is possible that sexual foreplay and the subsequent sexual arousal were shaped by these influences.
Oral Sex Oral sex is one common mode of sexual practices. Considering of anatomy, oral-genital sexual stimulation has the same sensitivity as the penis-vaginal intercourse or even more. In this survey, we found that one third of the female adults and two thirds of the male adults can accept it.
It suggested that sexual attitudes are more adoptive to the westernization, while sexual behavior are consistent with the historical or traditional culture, which is a well-known finding in social psychology studies that attitudes and behavior may be discordant .
Another interpretation might be that there is reluctance to report sexual dissatisfaction or sexual problems by women for any number of reasons—embarrassment or anxiety being two possibilities. Women generally felt more threatened than men when asked to report sensitive behavior . On the other hand, men might have a motive to exaggerate their sexual behavior . Therefore, they might be less likely to report the actual sexual behavior.
Another survey  in Jiangmen Guangdong Province reported that only 9. Several reasons account for these differences. First, Chinese are conservative in their sexual expression. Second, it represents a big gap between acceptance and practice of oral sex in Guangdong China. Intercourse Penis-vaginal intercourse is the most common way of sexual lives, because the genital responses of both sexes were strongest to intercourse .
Yet, the frequency of intercourse can be affected by many factors  , like demographic, familial, and social factors, etc. And the results of our survey is similar to another report in America  which demonstrated that the average frequency of intercourse of the responders was one to three times per week. On the other hand, the sexual position of the couples showed an obvious diversified tendency, which was aim at improving the quality of the sexual lives.
Still, there is a tendency that more males than females convert sexual position. Men tend to be more interested in sex than women  and male-superior was the most dominant position in sexual intercourse . This might be related to that young men would be more concerned with the quality and the quantity of their sex behavior.
Women, on the other hand, are still socialized to be reluctant to express their sexual desires, and to be more hesitant about new or novel sexual behaviors than men. The differences might be associated with the continuing differences in gender role socialization and socially normative pressures. Though there was no significant difference showed, but the frequency of men and women with higher education level was a bit lower than the counterpart with lower education level, which may be related to the corresponding jobs.
Higher educators could own jobs with more psychological pressure and more busy lives, so they might have less sexual lives per month. However, they paid more attention on the quality of sexual lives, and changed positions more, and requiring more fresh feeling.
Coordination with Sexual Partner The mutual caring and coordination is the basic condition of requiring satisfied sexual lives. Both of the couple had sexual requirement, not one alone.
Both the coordination of male and female sexual partner was demanded to obtain a harmony sexual live. Benuto L  reported that women endorsed more conservative attitudes than men, and Asian Americans had the most conservative sexual attitudes. Many women in China accepted the lives without the Puritanism and antisexual tradition of the Platonist and Judeo-Christian West  , some of them were afraid of their sexual partner to look down upon themselves, and used sexual repression to show her dignity .
Moreover, in Confucianism and Taoism, sexual codes could have been intended to please the ruling class or for other manipulative political purposes . And in the mind of most Chinese, a man is often the ruling class of the family. Therefore most women took sexual lives as a kind of moral obligation in marriage, and had a passive and negative attitude of sexual lives. These psychological factors became resistances of the exciting sexual practice.
Besides, the physiological difference rendered female sexual arousal be more difficult than male. After kissing, foreplay etc. On the other way, the sexual desire of male is much stronger and the target organ was relatively more centralized.