Muscle and men and sex. Sex Differences and Mechanisms of Task-Specific Muscle Fatigue.



Muscle and men and sex

Muscle and men and sex

Publisher's Disclaimer The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Exerc Sport Sci Rev See commentary " Task-specific sex differences in muscle fatigue: See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Abstract Women can be less fatigable than men due to sex-related differences within the neuromuscular system that impact physiological adjustments during a fatiguing task.

The involved mechanism s for the sex difference, however, is task specific. This review explores the novel hypothesis that variation of the task will alter the magnitude of the sex-difference in muscle fatigue and the contribution of involved mechanisms. It develops in men and women soon after the onset of sustained physical activity and is often quantified as a reduction in maximal voluntary contraction MVC force after or during maximal and submaximal exercise 5.

Muscle fatigue can occur despite continued and successful performance of a submaximal task. If the submaximal task is maintained, however, task failure will eventually occur Failure of a task can occur because the force or power requirements of the submaximal task are greater than the maximal strength or power able to be exerted by the principal muscles 15 , Task failure may also involve other rate-limiting physiological adjustments that occur during a fatiguing contraction 5.

Insight into what causes task failure can be achieved by comparing physiological adjustments with variation in the task, sex of the individual, or the age of the person performing the task. This functionally relevant approach has shed light on the reasons men and women differ in performance of a fatiguing contraction. Women exhibit different fatigue characteristics than men. For example, when men and women perform a submaximal fatiguing contraction at the same relative intensity, women are often able to sustain the contraction for a longer duration than men before task failure occurs 3 , 11 , 17 , Similarly, women experience less of a reduction in maximal force during sustained or intermittent maximal contractions 12 , Potential mechanisms for the sex difference in muscle fatigue were reviewed by Hicks and colleagues in Exercise Sport Sciences Reviews in 11 and was based on a small but growing number of studies.

Renewed interest in this topic has highlighted the concept that the magnitude of the sex-difference is specific to the task performed and that these differences can change across the lifespan. Figure 1 shows the mean relative difference in performance muscle fatigue or time to task failure between young men and women for an isometric sustained task Fig. In all three panels, a data point above the line indicates that the mean time to task failure was greater or the reduction in maximal force was less for the young women compared with the young men in one study at the plotted intensity of contraction x-axis.

Most studies indicate a sex difference that corresponds to young women being less fatigable than men when performing isometric contractions that are sustained Fig. In contrast, there was no systematic sex difference during shortening contractions, except when the task involved the elbow flexor muscles at intermediate contraction intensities Fig.

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Muscle and men and sex

Publisher's Disclaimer The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Exerc Sport Sci Rev See commentary " Task-specific sex differences in muscle fatigue: See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Abstract Women can be less fatigable than men due to sex-related differences within the neuromuscular system that impact physiological adjustments during a fatiguing task. The involved mechanism s for the sex difference, however, is task specific.

This review explores the novel hypothesis that variation of the task will alter the magnitude of the sex-difference in muscle fatigue and the contribution of involved mechanisms. It develops in men and women soon after the onset of sustained physical activity and is often quantified as a reduction in maximal voluntary contraction MVC force after or during maximal and submaximal exercise 5.

Muscle fatigue can occur despite continued and successful performance of a submaximal task. If the submaximal task is maintained, however, task failure will eventually occur Failure of a task can occur because the force or power requirements of the submaximal task are greater than the maximal strength or power able to be exerted by the principal muscles 15 , Task failure may also involve other rate-limiting physiological adjustments that occur during a fatiguing contraction 5.

Insight into what causes task failure can be achieved by comparing physiological adjustments with variation in the task, sex of the individual, or the age of the person performing the task.

This functionally relevant approach has shed light on the reasons men and women differ in performance of a fatiguing contraction. Women exhibit different fatigue characteristics than men. For example, when men and women perform a submaximal fatiguing contraction at the same relative intensity, women are often able to sustain the contraction for a longer duration than men before task failure occurs 3 , 11 , 17 , Similarly, women experience less of a reduction in maximal force during sustained or intermittent maximal contractions 12 , Potential mechanisms for the sex difference in muscle fatigue were reviewed by Hicks and colleagues in Exercise Sport Sciences Reviews in 11 and was based on a small but growing number of studies.

Renewed interest in this topic has highlighted the concept that the magnitude of the sex-difference is specific to the task performed and that these differences can change across the lifespan. Figure 1 shows the mean relative difference in performance muscle fatigue or time to task failure between young men and women for an isometric sustained task Fig. In all three panels, a data point above the line indicates that the mean time to task failure was greater or the reduction in maximal force was less for the young women compared with the young men in one study at the plotted intensity of contraction x-axis.

Most studies indicate a sex difference that corresponds to young women being less fatigable than men when performing isometric contractions that are sustained Fig. In contrast, there was no systematic sex difference during shortening contractions, except when the task involved the elbow flexor muscles at intermediate contraction intensities Fig.

Muscle and men and sex

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  1. This review explores the novel hypothesis that variation of the task will alter the magnitude of the sex-difference in muscle fatigue and the contribution of involved mechanisms. Fit in a set of Kegel exercises every time you do a routine task, such as brushing your teeth. Kegel exercises might have sexual benefits for both women and men.

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