In the modern world of technology, many jurisdictions are reforming their laws to prevent the over-prosecution of sex offenders and focusing on crimes involving a victim. The term sexual predator is often used to describe a sex offender or any of the "tier offenders"; however, only the category just below sexually-violent sexual predator is reserved for a severe or repeated sex offender: Individuals convicted of petty crimes not covered by the AWA are still liable to abide by the previous regulations denoting them as a sex offender or habitual sex offender, sexual predator, sexually violent sexual predator, or child-victim offender.
In the United States, the United Kingdom , and other countries, a convicted sex offender is often required to register with the respective jurisdiction's sex offender registry. Sexual offenders are sometimes classified by level. Recidivism The level of recidivism in sexual offenders is lower than is commonly believed.
The same study found that during the same 3 years from release, 68 percent of released non-sex offenders were re-arrested for any crime and Another report from the OJP which studied the recidivism of prisoners released in in 15 states accounting for two-thirds of all prisoners released in the United States that year reached the same conclusion.
Within three years of release, 2. Sex offenders were about four times more likely than non-sex offenders to be arrested for another sex crime after their discharge from prison 5.
An estimated 24 percent of those serving time for rape and 19 percent of those serving time for sexual assault had been on probation or parole at the time of the offense for which they were in state prison in Among child molesters released from prison in , 60 percent had been in prison for molesting a child 13 years old or younger.
The median age of victims of those imprisoned for sexual assault was less than 13 years old; the median age of rape victims was about 22 years. Child molesters were, on average, five years older than violent offenders who committed their crimes against adults.
Nearly 25 percent of child molesters were age 40 or older, but about 10 percent of inmates with adult victims were in that age group. In some jurisdictions especially in the United States , information in the registry is made available to the public via a website or other means. In many jurisdictions, registered sex offenders are subject to additional restrictions including housing. Those on parole or probation may be subject to restrictions not applicable to other parolees or probationers.
The law is enacted and enforced on a state-by-state basis. However, residence stipulations vary from state to state.
Some states such as Arkansas, Illinois, Washington and Idaho do not require sex offenders to move from their residences if a forbidden facility is built or a law is enacted after the offender takes up residency. Many aspects of the laws are criticised by reformists and civil right groups like National RSOL  and Human Right Watch ,   and treatment professionals as Atsa.
The offender must act upon the notification within five business days of receipt. If and when an offender is released from incarceration, they must confirm their registration status within five business days. Registration data includes the offender's sex, height, weight, date of birth, identifying characteristics if any , statutes violated, fingerprints and a current photograph.
An offender's email addresses, chat room IDs and instant-messaging aliases must be surrendered to authorities. In Colorado, an offender must re-register when moving to a new address, changing their legal name, employment, volunteer activity, identifying information used online or enrollment status at a post-secondary educational institution.
A web-based registration list may be found on county websites, which identifies adult convicted sex offenders who are sexually-violent predators convicted of felony sexual acts, crimes of violence or failure to register as required. Legally, "any person who is a sexually violent predator and any person who is convicted as an adult Therapies and treatment Behavior modification programs have been shown to reduce recidivism in sex offenders.
Two such approaches from this line of research have promise. The first uses operant conditioning approaches which use reward and punishment to train new behavior, such as problem-solving  and the second uses respondent conditioning procedures, such as aversion therapy.
Such programs are effective in lowering recidivism by 15—18 percent. Unlike physical castration, it is reversible by stopping the medication. For male sex offenders with severe or extreme paraphilias, physical castration appears to be effective. It results in a year re-offense rate of less than 2. Although considered cruel and unusual punishment by many, physical castration does not otherwise affect the lifespan of men compared with uncastrated men.
Risk assessment tools consider factors that have been empirically linked by research to sexual recidivism risk. Researchers and practitioners consider some factors as "static", such as age, number of prior sex offenses, victim gender, relationship to the victim, and indicators of psychopathy and deviant sexual arousal , and some other factors as "dynamic", such as an offender's compliance with supervision and treatment.
People convicted of any sex crime are "transformed into a concept of evil, which is then personified as a group of faceless, terrifying, and predatory devils", who are, contrary to scientific evidence, perceived as a constant threat, habitually waiting for an opportunity to attack.
Since passage of the Adam Walsh Act , Walsh himself has criticized the law, stating "You can't paint sex offenders with a broad brush. Department of Justice , sex offender recidivism is 5.