It became known as "underground" music, due to its circulation through informal networks and performances at unofficial venues. As Caribbean and African-American music gained momentum in Puerto Rico, reggae rap in Spanish marked the beginning of the Boricua underground and was a creative outlet for many young people.
This created an inconspicuous-yet-prominent underground youth culture which sought to express itself. As a youth culture existing on the fringes of society and the law, it has often been criticized. The Puerto Rican police launched a campaign against underground music by confiscating cassette tapes from music stores under penal obscenity codes, levying fines and demonizing rappers in the media.
The genre's popularity increased when it was discovered by international audiences during the early s. These themes, depicting the troubles of inner-city life, can still be found in reggaeton. The marquesinas were crucial to the development of Puerto Rico's underground scene because of the state's "fear of losing the ability to manipulate 'taste'".
The availability and quality of the cassettes led to reggaeton's popularity, which crossed socioeconomic barriers in the Puerto Rican music scene. Gerardo Cruet who created the recordings spread the genre from the marginalized residential areas into other sectors of society, particularly private schools. By the mids, "underground" cassettes were being sold in music stores. The genre caught up to middle-class youth, and found its way into the media. Bobby "Digital" Dixon 's " Dem Bow " production was played in clubs.
Underground music was not originally intended to be club music. Underground music in Puerto Rico was harshly criticized. In February , there was a government-sponsored campaign against underground music and its cultural influence. Puerto Rican police raided six record stores in San Juan,  hundreds of cassettes were confiscated and fines imposed in accordance with Laws and against obscenity.
The album had no cursing until the last song. It was a hit, and underground music continued to seep into the mainstream. Although the effort did not seem to negatively affect public opinion about reggaeton, it reflected the unease of the government and the upper social classes with what the music represented. Because of its often sexually-charged content and its roots in poor, urban communities, many middle- and upper-class Puerto Ricans found reggaeton threatening, "immoral, as well as artistically deficient, a threat to the social order, apolitical".
The name "reggaeton" became prominent during the early s, characterized by the dembow beat. It was coined in Puerto Rico to describe a unique fusion of Puerto Rican music. Crossover In , reggaeton became popular in the United States and Europe. Daddy Yankee's El Cangri. Daddy Yankee released Barrio Fino and a hit single, " Gasolina ". Musicians began to incorporate bachata into reggaeton,  with Ivy Queen releasing singles " Te He Querido, Te He Llorado " and "La Mala" featuring bachata's signature guitar sound, slower, romantic rhythms and emotive singing style.
In producers began to remix existing reggaeton music with bachata, marketing it as bachaton: The Big Boss set a first-week sales record for a reggaeton album, with 88, copies sold.
The album peaked at number nine on the Billboard , the second-highest reggaeton album on the mainstream chart. Los Extraterrestres , which debuted at number 14 on the Billboard and number one on the Top Latin Albums chart later in In , the music video for Despacito by Luis Fonsi featuring Daddy Yankee reached over a billion views in under 3 months.
As of January , the music video is the most viewed YouTube video of all-time. Characteristics Rhythm The dembow riddim was created by Jamaican dancehall producers during the late s and early s. Also known as "son bow", dembow consists of a kick drum, kickdown drum, palito, snare drum, timbal, timballroll and sometimes a high-hat cymbal. Dembow's percussion pattern was influenced by dancehall and other West Indian music soca , calypso and cadence ; this gives dembow a pan-Caribbean flavor.
Dembow is created with a personal computer. During the mids, dancehall music was revolutionized by the electronic keyboard and drum machine; subsequently, many dancehall producers used them to create different dancehall riddims. Dembow's role in reggaeton is a basic building block, a skeletal sketch in percussion. Newer reggaeton hits incorporate a lighter, electrified version of the riddim. Although most reggaeton artists recite their lyrics rapping or resembling rapping rather than singing , many alternate rapping and singing.
Reggaeton uses traditional verse-chorus-bridge pop structure. Like hip hop, reggaeton songs have a hook which is repeated throughout the song. Latino ethnic identity is a common musical, lyrical and visual theme. Unlike hip-hop CDs, reggaeton discs generally do not have parental advisories. Some songs have raised concerns about their depiction of women. Sandungueo Sandungueo, or perreo, is a dance associated with reggaeton which emerged during the early s in Puerto Rico. It focuses on grinding , with one partner facing the back of the other usually male behind female.
Since traditional couple dancing is face-to-face such as square dancing and the waltz , reggaeton dancing initially shocked observers with its sensuality but was featured in several music videos. A staple of parties and events, it complements the common mix of merengue, bachata, salsa and pop. In Cuba, reggaeton came to incorporate elements of traditional Cuban music , leading to the hybrid Cubaton.
The former is notable for fusing Cubaton with other genres, such as son Cubano , conga , cumbia , salsa , merengue , and Cuban rumba , as well as styles and forms such as rap and ballads , whereas the latter's music is influenced more by Jamaican music. Reggaeton is the foundation of a Latin-American commercial-radio term, Hurban ,  a combination of "Hispanic" and "urban" used to evoke the musical influences of hip hop and Latin American music.
Reggaeton, which evolved from hip hop and reggae, has helped Latin-Americans contribute to urban American culture and keep many aspects of their Hispanic heritage. The music relates to American socioeconomic issues including gender and race , in common with hip hop. Asia In the Philippines , reggaeton artists primarily use the Filipino language instead of Spanish or English.
See also Wikimedia Commons has media related to Reggaeton. Look up reggaeton in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.