A hippie-painted Volkswagen Beetle A July Time magazine study on hippie philosophy credited the foundation of the hippie movement with historical precedent as far back as the Sadhu of India, the spiritual seekers who had renounced the world by taking " Sannyas ". Even the counterculture of the Ancient Greeks , espoused by philosophers like Diogenes of Sinope and the Cynics were also early forms of hippie culture.
Francis of Assisi , Gandhi , and J. Between and , a German youth movement arose as a countercultural reaction to the organized social and cultural clubs that centered around German folk music. Known as Der Wandervogel "wandering bird" , the hippie movement opposed the formality of traditional German clubs, instead emphasizing amateur music and singing, creative dress, and communal outings involving hiking and camping.
Some opened the first health food stores , and many moved to southern California where they could practice an alternative lifestyle in a warm climate. Over time, young Americans adopted the beliefs and practices of the new immigrants. One group, called the "Nature Boys", took to the California desert and raised organic food, espousing a back-to-nature lifestyle like the Wandervogel.
American tourists in Thailand, early s Like Wandervogel, the hippie movement in the United States began as a youth movement. Composed mostly of white teenagers and young adults between 15 and 25 years old,   hippies inherited a tradition of cultural dissent from bohemians and beatniks of the Beat Generation in the late s.
By , hippies had become an established social group in the U. They used alternative arts, street theatre , folk music , and psychedelic rock as a part of their lifestyle and as a way of expressing their feelings, their protests and their vision of the world and life. Hippies opposed political and social orthodoxy, choosing a gentle and nondoctrinaire ideology that favored peace, love and personal freedom,   expressed for example in The Beatles ' song " All You Need is Love ".
Early hippies[ edit ] Escapin' through the lily fields I came across an empty space It trembled and exploded Left a bus stop in its place The bus came by and I got on That's when it all began There was cowboy Neal Of a bus to never-ever land — Grateful Dead , lyrics from "That's It for the Other One"  During the late s and early s, novelist Ken Kesey and the Merry Pranksters lived communally in California.
The Merry Pranksters were known for using cannabis , amphetamine , and LSD , and during their journey they "turned on" many people to these drugs. The Merry Pranksters filmed and audio taped their bus trips, creating an immersive multimedia experience that would later be presented to the public in the form of festivals and concerts. Berkeley's two coffee houses, the Cabale Creamery and the Jabberwock, sponsored performances by folk music artists in a beat setting. Laughlin III, co-founder of the Cabale Creamery,  established a kind of tribal, family identity among approximately fifty people who attended a traditional, all-night Native American peyote ceremony in a rural setting.
This ceremony combined a psychedelic experience with traditional Native American spiritual values; these people went on to sponsor a unique genre of musical expression and performance at the Red Dog Saloon in the isolated, old-time mining town of Virginia City , Nevada. There was no clear delineation between "performers" and "audience" in "The Red Dog Experience", during which music, psychedelic experimentation, a unique sense of personal style and Bill Ham's first primitive light shows combined to create a new sense of community.
Strange " at Longshoreman's Hall. Ten thousand people attended this sold-out event, with a thousand more turned away each night. We have a private revolution going on. A revolution of individuality and diversity that can only be private. Upon becoming a group movement, such a revolution ends up with imitators rather than participants It is essentially a striving for realization of one's relationship to life and other people The Avalon Ballroom, the Fillmore Auditorium and other venues provided settings where participants could partake of the full psychedelic music experience.
Bill Ham, who had pioneered the original Red Dog light shows, perfected his art of liquid light projection , which combined light shows and film projection and became synonymous with the San Francisco ballroom experience.
Gleason put it, "They danced all night long, orgiastic, spontaneous and completely free form. Activity centered around the Diggers , a guerrilla street theatre group that combined spontaneous street theatre, anarchistic action, and art happenings in their agenda to create a "free city".
By late , the Diggers opened free stores which simply gave away their stock, provided free food, distributed free drugs, gave away money, organized free music concerts, and performed works of political art. According to Cohen, those who took LSD "were not guilty of using illegal substances We were celebrating transcendental consciousness, the beauty of the universe, the beauty of being.
In , annoyed residents and business owners in the district had encouraged the passage of strict Hours before the protest one of L. A's rock 'n' roll radio stations announced there would be a rally at Pandora's Box , a club at the corner of Sunset Boulevard and Crescent Heights, and cautioned people to tread carefully.
Summer of Love[ edit ] Main article: The lyrics, "If you're going to San Francisco, be sure to wear some flowers in your hair", inspired thousands of young people from all over the world to travel to San Francisco, sometimes wearing flowers in their hair and distributing flowers to passersby, earning them the name, " Flower Children ".
In June , Herb Caen was approached by "a distinguished magazine"  to write about why hippies were attracted to San Francisco. He declined the assignment but interviewed hippies in the Haight for his own newspaper column in the San Francisco Chronicle.
Caen determined that, "Except in their music, they couldn't care less about the approval of the straight world. The Philosophy of a Subculture.
Leave society as you have known it. Blow the mind of every straight person you can reach. Turn them on, if not to drugs, then to beauty, love, honesty, fun.
The media was right behind them, casting a spotlight on the Haight-Ashbury district and popularizing the "hippie" label. With this increased attention, hippies found support for their ideals of love and peace but were also criticized for their anti-work, pro-drug, and permissive ethos.
It was the hippie sacrament, a mind detergent capable of washing away years of social programming, a re-imprinting device, a consciousness-expander, a tool that would push us up the evolutionary ladder. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band which was quickly embraced by the hippie movement with its colorful psychedelic sonic imagery. The incessant media coverage led the Diggers to declare the "death" of the hippie with a parade.
Haight-Ashbury could not accommodate the influx of crowds mostly naive youngsters with no place to live. Many took to living on the street, panhandling and drug-dealing. There were problems with malnourishment, disease, and drug addiction. Crime and violence skyrocketed. None of these trends reflected what the hippies had envisioned. The band MC5 can be seen playing.
By , hippie-influenced fashions were beginning to take off in the mainstream, especially for youths and younger adults of the populous " Baby Boomer " generation, many of whom may have aspired to emulate the hardcore movements now living in tribalistic communes, but had no overt connections to them. This was noticed not only in terms of clothes and also longer hair for men, but also in music, film, art, and literature, and not just in the US, but around the world.
Eugene McCarthy 's brief presidential campaign successfully persuaded a significant minority of young adults to "get clean for Gene" by shaving their beards or wearing longer skirts; however the "Clean Genes" had little impact on the popular image in the media spotlight, of the hirsute hippy adorned in beads, feathers, flowers and bells. Poster for the documentary Revolution from which was about the hippie counterculture in the San Francisco Area around the time of the Summer of Love A sign of this was the visibility that the hippie subculture gained in various mainstream and underground media.
Hippie exploitation films are s exploitation films about the hippie counterculture  with stereotypical situations associated with the movement such as cannabis and LSD use, sex and wild psychedelic parties. Other more serious and more critically acclaimed films about the hippie counterculture also appeared such as Easy Rider and Alice's Restaurant. List of films related to the hippie subculture.
Documentaries and television programs have also been produced until today as well as fiction and nonfiction books. The popular Broadway musical Hair was presented in People commonly label other cultural movements of that period as hippie, however there are differences.
For example, hippies were often not directly engaged in politics, as contrasted with "Yippies" Youth International Party , an activist organization. The Yippies came to national attention during their celebration of the spring equinox, when some 3, of them took over Grand Central Terminal in New York—eventually resulting in 61 arrests. The Yippies, especially their leaders Abbie Hoffman and Jerry Rubin , became notorious for their theatrics, such as trying to levitate the Pentagon at the October war protest, and such slogans as "Rise up and abandon the creeping meatball!
In the US the Hippie movement started to be seen as part of the " New Left " which was associated with anti-war college campus protest movements. The University of California, Berkeley had demolished all the buildings on a 2.
After a long delay, during which the site became a dangerous eyesore, thousands of ordinary Berkeley citizens, merchants, students, and hippies took matters into their own hands, planting trees, shrubs, flowers and grass to convert the land into a park.
A major confrontation ensued on May 15, , when Governor Ronald Reagan ordered the park destroyed, which led to a two-week occupation of the city of Berkeley by the California National Guard. Swami Satchidananda giving the opening talk at the Woodstock Festival of In August , the Woodstock Music and Art Fair took place in Bethel , New York, which for many, exemplified the best of hippie counterculture.
Wavy Gravy 's Hog Farm provided security and attended to practical needs, and the hippie ideals of love and human fellowship seemed to have gained real-world expression. Similar rock festivals occurred in other parts of the country, which played a significant role in spreading hippie ideals throughout America. The Hells Angels provided security that proved far less benevolent than the security provided at the Woodstock event: Aftershocks[ edit ] Contemporary hippie at the Rainbow Gathering in Russia, By the s, the s zeitgeist that had spawned hippie culture seemed to be on the wane.
Nevertheless, the turbulent political atmosphere that featured the bombing of Cambodia and shootings by National Guardsmen at Jackson State University and Kent State University still brought people together.
Much of hippie style had been integrated into mainstream American society by the early s. The anti-war movement reached its peak at the May Day Protests as over 12, protesters were arrested in Washington DC. President Nixon himself actually ventured out of the White House and chatted with a group of the 'hippie' protesters. The draft was ended soon thereafter, in During the mid s, with the end of the draft and the Vietnam War , a renewal of patriotic sentiment associated with the approach of the United States Bicentennial and the emergence of punk in London, Manchester, New York and Los Angeles, the mainstream media lost interest in the hippie counterculture.
At the same time there was a revival of the Mod subculture , skinheads, teddy boys and the emergence of new youth cultures, like the goths an arty offshoot of punk and football casuals. Acid rock gave way to prog rock , heavy metal , disco , and punk rock. Starting in the late s, hippies began to come under attack by skinheads. The countercultural movement was also under covert assault by J. Hippie ideals had a marked influence on anarcho-punk and some post-punk youth subcultures, especially during the Second Summer of Love.
Couple attending Snoqualmie Moondance Festival, August Hippie communes, where members tried to live the ideals of the hippie movement, continued to flourish. On the west coast, Oregon had quite a few. Some are still around. Many embrace the hippie values of peace, love, and community, and hippies may still be found in bohemian enclaves around the world.
The hippie subculture is also linked to the psychedelic trance or psytrance scene, born out of the Goa scene in India.