Prehistory of the Philippines The Tabon Caves are the site of one of the oldest human remains known in the Philippines, the Tabon Man Recent discovery of stone tools and fossils of butchered animal remains in Rizal, Kalinga has pushed back evidence of early hominins in the country to as early as , years. Landa Jocano theorizes that the ancestors of the Filipinos evolved locally. These artifacts are said to be evidence of long range communication between prehistoric Southeast Asian societies.
History of the Philippines — , Religion in pre-colonial Philippines , and Cultural achievements of pre-colonial Philippines A Boxer Codex image illustrating the ancient kadatuan or tumao noble class.
The current demarcation between the Prehistory and the Early history of the Philippines is 21 April , which is the equivalent on the Proleptic Gregorian calendar for the date indicated on the Laguna Copperplate Inscription —the earliest known surviving written record to come from the Philippines. Landa Jocano called the "Barangic Phase" of early Philippine history, beginning from the 14th century through the arrival of Spanish colonizers and the beginning of the Philippines' colonial period.
Among the early Philippine polities, this arrangement fulfilled the requirements for trade with China, but did not actually translate into political or military control. Regarding the relations of early Philippine polities with the various state-level polities of Indonesia and Malaysia, legendary accounts often mention the interaction of early Philippine polities with the Srivijaya empire, but there is not much archeological evidence to definitively support such a relationship.
The oldest known historical record found in the Philippines, discovered at Lumban, Laguna. The earliest historical record of these polities and kingdoms is the Laguna Copperplate Inscription , which indirectly refers to the Tagalog polity of Tondo c.
Diwata in Mindanao, and the temple complex of Medang in Java. Song dynasty traders visited Ma-i annually, and their accounts described Ma-i's geography, trade products, and the trade behaviors of its rulers. The official history of the Song dynasty next refers to the Rajahnate of Butuan c.
Butuan attained prominence under the rule of Rajah Sri Bata Shaja,  who was from a Buddhist ruling-class governing a Hindu nation. This state became powerful due to the local goldsmith industry and it also had commercial ties and a diplomatic rivalry with the Champa civilization. The Kedatuan of Madja-as c. Its founding datu, Puti, had purchased land for his new realms from the aboriginal Ati hero, Marikudo.
Afterwards, the people of Madja-as often raided the port cities of southern China and warred with the Chinese navy. This state grew wealthy by making use of the inter-island shipping within the archipelago. The s saw the arrival and eventual spread of Islam in the Philippine archipelago. The sultanate form of government extended further into Lanao. Manila in Luzon was Islamized during the reign of Sultan Bolkiah in to This was accomplished because the Sultanate of Brunei subjugated Tondo by defeating Rajah Gambang in battle and thereafter installing the Muslim rajah, Rajah Salalila to the throne and by establishing the Bruneian puppet-state of the Rajahnate of Maynila.
Furthermore, the islands were sparsely populated  due to consistent natural disasters  and inter-kingdom conflicts. Therefore, colonization was made easy and the small states of the archipelago quickly became incorporated into the Spanish Empire and were Hispanicized and Christianized.
The years under Spain and nearly five decades under the USA decisively moulded the nation". In , Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan 's expedition arrived in the Philippines, claimed the islands for Spain and was then killed at the Battle of Mactan. After relocating to Panay island and consolidating a coalition of native Visayan allies, Hispanic soldiers and Latin-American recruits, the Spaniards then invaded Islamic Manila , therein they put down the Tondo Conspiracy and exiled the conspirators to Guam and Guerrero.
The Spanish expeditions into the Philippines were also part of a larger Ibero-Islamic world conflict  that included a rivalry with the Ottoman Caliphate which had a center of operations at its nearby vassal, the Sultanate of Aceh.