Judicial corporal punishment Officially abolished in most Western countries, flogging or whipping, including foot whipping in some countries, is still a common punishment in some parts of the world, particularly in countries using Islamic law and in some territories formerly under British rule.
Medically supervised caning is routinely ordered by the courts as a penalty for some categories of crime in Singapore , Brunei , Malaysia , Indonesia, Tanzania, Zimbabwe and elsewhere. Flogging is a form of punishment used under Islamic Sharia law. It is the prescribed punishment hudud for offences including fornication, alcohol use and slander and is also widely favoured as a discretionary punishment ta'zir for many offences, such as violating gender interaction laws zina.
Punishment is normally carried out in public. However, some scholars maintain that this goes against the teachings of Islam. They are not supposed to leave permanent scars, and when the number of lashes is high, are frequently done in batches to minimise risk of harm. Corporal punishment Judaism According to the Torah Deuteronomy However, in the absence of a Sanhedrin , corporal punishment is not practiced in Jewish law. Halakha specifies the lashes must be given in sets of three, so the total number cannot exceed Also, the person whipped is first judged whether they can withstand the punishment, if not, the number of whips is decreased.
Jewish law limited flagellation to forty strokes, and in practice delivered thirty-nine, so as to avoid any possibility of breaking this law due to a miscount. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
December Learn how and when to remove this template message In Sparta , young men were flogged as a test of their masculinity.
In the Roman Empire , flagellation was often used as a prelude to crucifixion , and in this context is sometimes referred to as scourging. Whips with small pieces of metal or bone at the tips were commonly used. Such a device could easily cause disfigurement and serious trauma, such as ripping pieces of flesh from the body or loss of an eye.
In addition to causing severe pain, the victim would approach a state of hypovolemic shock due to loss of blood. The Romans reserved this treatment for non-citizens, as stated in the lex Porcia and lex Sempronia, dating from and BC.
The poet Horace refers to the horribile flagellum horrible whip in his Satires. Typically, the one to be punished was stripped naked and bound to a low pillar so that he could bend over it, or chained to an upright pillar so as to be stretched out. Two lictors some reports indicate scourgings with four or six lictors alternated blows from the bare shoulders down the body to the soles of the feet. There was no limit to the number of blows inflicted—this was left to the lictors to decide, though they were normally not supposed to kill the victim.
Nonetheless, Livy , Suetonius and Josephus report cases of flagellation where victims died while still bound to the post. Flagellation was referred to as "half death" by some authors, as many victims died shortly thereafter. Cicero reports in In Verrem, "pro mortuo sublatus brevi postea mortuus" "taken away for a dead man, shortly thereafter he was dead". From Middle Ages to modern times[ edit ] Punishment with a knout. The Whipping Act was passed in England in Under this legislation, vagrants were to be taken to a nearby populated area "and there tied to the end of a cart naked and beaten with whips throughout such market town till the body shall be bloody".
In the late seventeenth century, however, the courts occasionally ordered that the flogging should be carried out in prison or a house of correction rather than on the streets. From the s courts began explicitly to differentiate between private whipping and public whipping. Over the course of the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries the proportion of whippings carried out in public declined, but the number of private whippings increased.
The public whipping of women was abolished in after having been in decline since the s and that of men ended in the early s, though not formally abolished until Private whipping of men in prison continued and was not abolished until This power was not abolished until , having been last used in On 31 May , the Jacobin women seized a revolutionary leader, Anne Josephe Theroigne de Mericourt , stripped her naked, and flogged her on the bare bottom in the public garden of the Tuileries.
After this humiliation, she refused to wear any clothes, in memory of the outrage she had suffered. In the Russian Empire , knouts were used to flog criminals and political offenders. Sentences of a hundred lashes would usually result in death.
Whipping was used as a punishment for Russian serfs. The scars are clearly visible because of keloid formation. Whipping has been used as a form of discipline on slaves. It was frequently carried out during the period of slavery in the United States , by slave owners and their slaves.
The power was also given to slave "patrollers," mostly poor whites, who had among their powers the ability to whip any slave who violated the slave codes. Flogging as military punishment[ edit ] In the 18th and 19th centuries, European armies administered floggings to common soldiers who committed breaches of the military code. United States[ edit ] During the American Revolutionary War , the American Congress raised the legal limit on lashes from 39 to for soldiers who were convicted by courts-martial.
However, in , a cashiered British officer's sword could be broken over his head, among other indignities inflicted on him. Hale , the United States Congress banned flogging on all U.
Military flogging was abolished in the United States Army on 5 August In severe cases a person could be "flogged around the fleet": John O'Connor Power , the member for Mayo, asked the First Lord of the Admiralty to bring the navy cat-of-nine-tails to the Commons Library so that the members might see what they were voting about. It was the Great "Cat" Contention, "Mr Speaker, since the Government has let the cat out of the bag, there is nothing to be done but to take the bull by the horns.
This many lashes could permanently disable or kill a man. Charles Oman , historian of the Peninsular War , noted that the maximum sentence was inflicted "nine or ten times by general court-martial during the whole six years of the war" and that 1, lashes were administered about 50 times. One soldier was sentenced to lashes for stealing a beehive.
See Australian penal colonies section. If anything was calculated to brutalize an army it was the wicked cruelty of the British military punishment code, which Wellington to the end of his life supported. There is plenty of authority for the fact that the man who had once received his lashes for a fault which was small, or which involved no moral guilt, was often turned thereby from a good soldier into a bad soldier, by losing his self-respect and having his sense of justice seared out.
Good officers knew this well enough, and did their best to avoid the cat-of-nine-tails, and to try more rational means—more often than not with success. In one case, a British soldier on detached duty with the KGL was sentenced to be flogged, but the German commander refused to carry out the punishment.
When the British 73rd Foot flogged a man in occupied France in , disgusted French citizens protested against it.