Dispute over consensual but unprotected sex. Campus Rape: The Problem With 'Yes Means Yes'.



Dispute over consensual but unprotected sex

Dispute over consensual but unprotected sex

Pregnancy resulting from rape is not rare. In fact, a woman is more than twice as likely to get pregnant during a rape than during consensual sex. That said, there may actually be something to the idea that the human female body has evolved an ability to resist rape-related pregnancies, although the potential mechanism is pregnancy termination, not prevention, so it's almost certainly not what Akin was talking about.

Akin now admits he "misspoke" in the interview, although it's not entirely clear which part he's referring to. Akin's intentions aside, he's just plain wrong when he says rape-related pregnancies are rare a fact that's even more frightening considering that he is a member of the House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology.

Holmes's study , which was published in , found that 5 percent of rapes in females of reproductive age resulted in pregnancy, amounting to an estimated 32, rape-related pregnancies per year in the U.

Even that astounding number was a "significant underestimation," she says, because so many rapes go unreported. More recently, in , husband-and-wife team Jonathan and Tiffani Gottschall, then at St. Lawrence University, identified even higher rape-related pregnancy rates. Analyzing survey results from 8, women around the country, they determined that 6. In cases where no birth control was used, the rate increased to 8 percent. Meanwhile, a CDC report released last November concluded that 1 in 5 women have been raped, with 1.

Doing the math, allowing for the use of birth control, and only including adults, the most recent data suggests that more than 83, women became pregnant by a man who raped them in Jonathan Gottschall recognizes that there's some "squishiness" in all of these numbers because they're based on self-reported data.

Still, he says, "the available data give us no reason to think that conception from rape is rare, or even that it is less rare than conception from consensual intercourse. If anything, the data suggest that things go the other way around. Rapists subsconsciously target victims based on their likelihood of conception.

No one is sure why forced sex is statistically a more successful reproductive strategy than consensual sex. Holmes confirms that most rapes occur in women under 25, and pre-pubescent girls, post-menopausal women and visibly pregnant women are statistically underrepresented among female rape victims, according to Gordon Gallup, an evolutionary psychologist at SUNY-Albany who wrote about rape-related pregnancy in The Oxford Handbook of Sexual Conflict in Humans.

They tend to preferentially target young, post-pubescent females that are in their reproductive prime. Seeking out youth and attractiveness -- a fertility cue, according to a growing body of evidence -- gives rapists the reproductive edge, the Gottschalls proposed in their paper.

Thus we propose that rapists target victims not only on the basis of age but based on a whole complement of physical and behavioral signals indicating the victim's capacity to become pregnant and successfully carry a child to term. Last year, during a conversation about the antidepressant effects of semen , he mentioned a theory that the nature of a rapist's ejaculate has something to do with his reproductive success.

When I asked him to elaborate on that, he told me that semen contains follicle stimulating hormone FSH and luteinizing hormone LH , which trigger ovulation during the female menstrual cycle. FSH is needed for sperm production, but the presence of LH in high levels is more mysterious because it's not important for male fertility.

It's possible, Gallup says, that seminal fluid released during forced sex contains higher-than-normal levels of these hormones -- LH in particular -- which may trigger ovulation in the victim. There's no direct evidence yet of sex-induced ovulation in humans, although there's some very new research hinting at the possibility. The LH in semen has been shown to trigger ovulation in camels, alpacas and llamas. Semen also makes female koalas ovulate, although LH hasn't been identified as the active ingredient in that species' semen yet.

A study found that 70 percent of conceptions from rape occurred outside a woman's most fertile time. And a study cited seven women who reported becoming pregnant due to rape, despite having not had a period for up to two years leading up to the assault. The idea that semen produced during rape is especially primed to promote pregnancy seems less far-fetched considering the well-established evidence that what a man is doing when he ejaculates affects the chemical makeup of his semen.

Studies on artificial insemination show that semen collected from a man who used his imagination to become aroused and ejaculate is much less likely to result in conception than a sample collected from a man watching porn, Gallup says. Even more potent is semen collected after coitus interupptus, i.

The conditions under which a man becomes aroused and ejaculates has been shown to affect factors like sperm count, shape and mobility. If semen changes based on context, it's plausible, Gallup asserts, that participating in a rape can affect its chemical makeup. Ovulation-inducing semen would be especially useful during rape, which is usually a one-time encounter. As sinister as it is, the ability to unconsciously adjust semen to make it more potent during rape could be one reproductive strategy that evolved in men to increase their reproductive success.

In addition to the devastating physical and emotional consequences of rape for the victim, things are also grim from the evolutionary perspective. Women are left holding the bag, so to speak. I've written about these kinds of dueling reproductive forces, known as antagonist coevolution, before. Some quick examples in human females: Research shows that women engage in less sexually risky behavior around ovulation, when they're likely to get pregnant, and their hand-grip strength, a measure of physical resistance, is enhanced during ovulation if they read a sexual-assault scenario, a mechanism that may have evolved to enable the female to more effectively resist rape when they're fertile.

In saying that women "shut down" pregnancy after rape, Rep. Akin unwittingly stumbled upon the concept that women's bodies reject unfamiliar sperm. In , Gallup and his co-author Jennifer Davis published their theory that preeclampsia, a common pregnancy complication that can result in spontaneous abortion, evolved as an adaptive response to unfamiliar semen.

I say unwittingly because Akin was more likely referring to a theory that the fear and trauma of rape causes a woman's fallopian tubes to tighten, thus preventing pregnancy. This idea, proposed by John C. Willke, a physician and a former president of the National Right to Life Committee, has been lambasted by other doctors. Psychologist and writer Jesse Bering explained the preeclampsia idea in his excellent post , which I highly recommend you read in its entirety: That it was the woman's prior exposure to the male's semen that was responsible for this pattern was evident by the fact that couples who'd been using barrier contraceptives such as condoms , or who practiced coitus interruptus in which the man withdraws prior to ejaculation before they began trying to conceive also had higher rates of preeclampsia than those who'd been engaging in unprotected sex for some time.

The sheer numbers of pregnancies from rape tell us that it's happening -- a lot. And, obviously, preeclampsia is not the solution. Having the right to choose what to do about it is. Jennifer Abbasi is a science and health writer and editor living in Portland, OR. Follow Jen on Twitter jenabbasi and email her at popsci.

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What Is The Age Of Consent?



Dispute over consensual but unprotected sex

Pregnancy resulting from rape is not rare. In fact, a woman is more than twice as likely to get pregnant during a rape than during consensual sex. That said, there may actually be something to the idea that the human female body has evolved an ability to resist rape-related pregnancies, although the potential mechanism is pregnancy termination, not prevention, so it's almost certainly not what Akin was talking about.

Akin now admits he "misspoke" in the interview, although it's not entirely clear which part he's referring to. Akin's intentions aside, he's just plain wrong when he says rape-related pregnancies are rare a fact that's even more frightening considering that he is a member of the House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology. Holmes's study , which was published in , found that 5 percent of rapes in females of reproductive age resulted in pregnancy, amounting to an estimated 32, rape-related pregnancies per year in the U.

Even that astounding number was a "significant underestimation," she says, because so many rapes go unreported. More recently, in , husband-and-wife team Jonathan and Tiffani Gottschall, then at St.

Lawrence University, identified even higher rape-related pregnancy rates. Analyzing survey results from 8, women around the country, they determined that 6.

In cases where no birth control was used, the rate increased to 8 percent. Meanwhile, a CDC report released last November concluded that 1 in 5 women have been raped, with 1. Doing the math, allowing for the use of birth control, and only including adults, the most recent data suggests that more than 83, women became pregnant by a man who raped them in Jonathan Gottschall recognizes that there's some "squishiness" in all of these numbers because they're based on self-reported data.

Still, he says, "the available data give us no reason to think that conception from rape is rare, or even that it is less rare than conception from consensual intercourse. If anything, the data suggest that things go the other way around. Rapists subsconsciously target victims based on their likelihood of conception. No one is sure why forced sex is statistically a more successful reproductive strategy than consensual sex. Holmes confirms that most rapes occur in women under 25, and pre-pubescent girls, post-menopausal women and visibly pregnant women are statistically underrepresented among female rape victims, according to Gordon Gallup, an evolutionary psychologist at SUNY-Albany who wrote about rape-related pregnancy in The Oxford Handbook of Sexual Conflict in Humans.

They tend to preferentially target young, post-pubescent females that are in their reproductive prime. Seeking out youth and attractiveness -- a fertility cue, according to a growing body of evidence -- gives rapists the reproductive edge, the Gottschalls proposed in their paper.

Thus we propose that rapists target victims not only on the basis of age but based on a whole complement of physical and behavioral signals indicating the victim's capacity to become pregnant and successfully carry a child to term. Last year, during a conversation about the antidepressant effects of semen , he mentioned a theory that the nature of a rapist's ejaculate has something to do with his reproductive success. When I asked him to elaborate on that, he told me that semen contains follicle stimulating hormone FSH and luteinizing hormone LH , which trigger ovulation during the female menstrual cycle.

FSH is needed for sperm production, but the presence of LH in high levels is more mysterious because it's not important for male fertility. It's possible, Gallup says, that seminal fluid released during forced sex contains higher-than-normal levels of these hormones -- LH in particular -- which may trigger ovulation in the victim. There's no direct evidence yet of sex-induced ovulation in humans, although there's some very new research hinting at the possibility.

The LH in semen has been shown to trigger ovulation in camels, alpacas and llamas. Semen also makes female koalas ovulate, although LH hasn't been identified as the active ingredient in that species' semen yet. A study found that 70 percent of conceptions from rape occurred outside a woman's most fertile time.

And a study cited seven women who reported becoming pregnant due to rape, despite having not had a period for up to two years leading up to the assault. The idea that semen produced during rape is especially primed to promote pregnancy seems less far-fetched considering the well-established evidence that what a man is doing when he ejaculates affects the chemical makeup of his semen.

Studies on artificial insemination show that semen collected from a man who used his imagination to become aroused and ejaculate is much less likely to result in conception than a sample collected from a man watching porn, Gallup says. Even more potent is semen collected after coitus interupptus, i. The conditions under which a man becomes aroused and ejaculates has been shown to affect factors like sperm count, shape and mobility.

If semen changes based on context, it's plausible, Gallup asserts, that participating in a rape can affect its chemical makeup. Ovulation-inducing semen would be especially useful during rape, which is usually a one-time encounter. As sinister as it is, the ability to unconsciously adjust semen to make it more potent during rape could be one reproductive strategy that evolved in men to increase their reproductive success.

In addition to the devastating physical and emotional consequences of rape for the victim, things are also grim from the evolutionary perspective. Women are left holding the bag, so to speak. I've written about these kinds of dueling reproductive forces, known as antagonist coevolution, before.

Some quick examples in human females: Research shows that women engage in less sexually risky behavior around ovulation, when they're likely to get pregnant, and their hand-grip strength, a measure of physical resistance, is enhanced during ovulation if they read a sexual-assault scenario, a mechanism that may have evolved to enable the female to more effectively resist rape when they're fertile.

In saying that women "shut down" pregnancy after rape, Rep. Akin unwittingly stumbled upon the concept that women's bodies reject unfamiliar sperm. In , Gallup and his co-author Jennifer Davis published their theory that preeclampsia, a common pregnancy complication that can result in spontaneous abortion, evolved as an adaptive response to unfamiliar semen. I say unwittingly because Akin was more likely referring to a theory that the fear and trauma of rape causes a woman's fallopian tubes to tighten, thus preventing pregnancy.

This idea, proposed by John C. Willke, a physician and a former president of the National Right to Life Committee, has been lambasted by other doctors. Psychologist and writer Jesse Bering explained the preeclampsia idea in his excellent post , which I highly recommend you read in its entirety: That it was the woman's prior exposure to the male's semen that was responsible for this pattern was evident by the fact that couples who'd been using barrier contraceptives such as condoms , or who practiced coitus interruptus in which the man withdraws prior to ejaculation before they began trying to conceive also had higher rates of preeclampsia than those who'd been engaging in unprotected sex for some time.

The sheer numbers of pregnancies from rape tell us that it's happening -- a lot. And, obviously, preeclampsia is not the solution.

Having the right to choose what to do about it is. Jennifer Abbasi is a science and health writer and editor living in Portland, OR. Follow Jen on Twitter jenabbasi and email her at popsci.

Dispute over consensual but unprotected sex

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4 Comments

  1. The worry is it could lead to an increase in abuse cases and increasing pressure to have sex at a younger age. However, it is clear that most incidents are not prosecuted and do not lead to arrests and convictions.

  2. They tend to preferentially target young, post-pubescent females that are in their reproductive prime.

  3. During that time they had sex in various positions, but Ecclestone said the woman never objected to anything.

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