Single music — In music, a single or record single is a type of release, typically a song recording of fewer tracks than an LP record, an album or an EP record. This can be released for sale to the public in a variety of different formats, in most cases, a single is a song that is released separately from an album, although it usually also appears on an album. Typically, these are the songs from albums that are released separately for promotional uses such as digital download or commercial radio airplay and are expected to be the most popular, in other cases a recording released as a single may not appear on an album.
As digital downloading and audio streaming have become prevalent, it is often possible for every track on an album to also be available separately. Nevertheless, the concept of a single for an album has been retained as an identification of a heavily promoted or more popular song within an album collection.
Despite being referred to as a single, singles can include up to as many as three tracks on them. The biggest digital music distributor, iTunes, accepts as many as three tracks less than ten minutes each as a single, as well as popular music player Spotify also following in this trend.
Any more than three tracks on a release or longer than thirty minutes in total running time is either an Extended Play or if over six tracks long. The basic specifications of the single were made in the late 19th century. Gramophone discs were manufactured with a range of speeds and in several sizes. By about , however, the inch,78 rpm shellac disc had become the most commonly used format, the inherent technical limitations of the gramophone disc defined the standard format for commercial recordings in the early 20th century.
With these factors applied to the inch format, songwriters and performers increasingly tailored their output to fit the new medium, the breakthrough came with Bob Dylans Like a Rolling Stone. Singles have been issued in various formats, including 7-inch, inch, other, less common, formats include singles on digital compact cassette, DVD, and LD, as well as many non-standard sizes of vinyl disc.
Some artist release singles on records, a more common in musical subcultures. The most common form of the single is the 45 or 7-inch.
The names are derived from its speed,45 rpm. The 7-inch 45 rpm record was released 31 March by RCA Victor as a smaller, more durable, the first 45 rpm records were monaural, with recordings on both sides of the disc.
As stereo recordings became popular in the s, almost all 45 rpm records were produced in stereo by the early s 2. Their third album, Machiavelli and the Four Seasons, reached the Australian national top 10 in , TISM were known for their hybrid of dance music and rocknroll, high-energy live shows and humorous lyrics. TISMs songs frequently satirised modern culture, celebrities and the entertainment industry, classic literature and art, current affairs, politics, the titles of their songs were often wordplays created by juxtaposing pop culture references with more intellectual ones.
They reformed in February and returned to their recordings, experimenting with dark ambient and industrial music and they consider every subsequent performance a re-union gig. Their next single,40 Years - Then Death, was released on transparent vinyl in a plastic sleeve with no cover art or labels.
This Is Serious Mums first radio-friendly single, despite the packaging, was received well. The first record contained twelve of TISMs most popular tracks, despite this odd combination, Truckin Songs entered the lower reaches of Australias mainstream Top 50, as did the single Saturday Night Palsy. When Phonogram released Hot Dogma it failed to reach the commercial charts, Hot Dogma is the first release to use the acronymic form of the bands name exclusively.
Over two nights in May , the band were filmed live and released the video Incontinent in Ten Continents and these performances were the last for guitarist Leek Van Vlalen.
The title is a reference to and deliberate misspelling of The White Album, appropriate to TISMs humour and mockery of the music industry, the album is only available as part of a larger package containing two DVDs.
The title of the disc refers to Madman Entertainment, who released the Albun. The concert features a telethon hosted by Marcel Proust in which TISM need to raise a million dollars before the end of the concert or they split up for good. This extra allows the viewer to select from any four of the footage at any time.
A bonus of this feature is that this extra does not need DVD-Rom support, the White Albun is a full-length studio album featuring sixteen tracks. The title of the album, as stated earlier in the article, is a misspelling of the Beatles album. The title was chosen because, as Ron Hitler-Barassi put it, What were doing here is basically what Jet are doing, if its worked for Jet, its going to work for us, thats what were hoping.
Made in flash, the video enjoyed popular internet success through the ease of flash file distribution online, the third disc in the set, the second DVD, contains the most content 4. CD single — This article is about the 12cm single. Not to be confused with 8cm single, the standard in the Red Book for the term CD single. A CD single is a single in the form of a standard size compact disc. It is not to be confused with the Mini CD single, the format was introduced in the mids but did not gain its place in the market until the early s.
With the rise in digital downloads in the early s, sales of CD singles have decreased, commercially released CD singles can vary in length from two songs up to six songs like an EP. Some contain multiple mixes of one or more songs, in the tradition of 12 vinyl singles, depending on the nation, there may be limits on the number of songs and total length for sales to count in singles charts.
Containing four tracks, it had a limited print run. CD singles were first made eligible for the UK Singles Chart in , the Mini CD single format was originally created for use for singles in the late s, but met with limited success, particularly in the US.
The smaller CDs were more successful in Japan and have become more common in Europe. In the UK, record companies would also release two CDs but, usually, these consisted of three tracks or more each. Pressure from record labels made singles charts in some countries become song charts, allowing album cuts to chart based only on airplay, without a single ever being released.
In Australia, the Herald Sun reported the CD single is set to become extinct, while CD singles no longer maintain their own section of the store, copies are still distributed but placed with the artists albums. On a Mission by Gabriella Cilmi was the last CD single to be stocked in Kmart, Target and Big W, sanity Entertainment, having resisted the decline for longer than the other major outlets, has also ceased selling CD singles. In Greece and Cyprus, the term CD single is used to describe a play in which there may be anywhere from three to six different tracks.
These releases charted on the Greek Singles Chart with songs released as singles, in September , there was talk of ringtones for mobile phones outstripping CD singles sales for the year 5. Alternative rock — Alternative rock is a genre of rock music that emerged from the independent music underground of the s and became widely popular in the s and s. In this instance, the word refers to the genres distinction from mainstream rock music.
The terms original meaning was broader, referring to a generation of musicians unified by their debt to either the musical style or simply the independent. Ethos of punk rock, which in the late s laid the groundwork for alternative music, Alternative rock is a broad umbrella term consisting of music that differs greatly in terms of its sound, its social context, and its regional roots. By the end of the decade, alternative rocks mainstream prominence declined due to a number of events that caused grunge and Britpop to fade, emo attracted attention in the larger alternative rock world, and the term was applied to a variety of artists, including multi-platinum acts.
Post-punk revival artists such as Modest Mouse and The Killers had commercial success in the early, before the term alternative rock came into common usage around , the sort of music to which it refers was known by a variety of terms.
College rock was used in the United States to describe the music during the s due to its links to the radio circuit. In the United Kingdom, dozens of small do it yourself record labels emerged as a result of the punk subculture, according to the founder of one of these labels, Cherry Red, NME and Sounds magazines published charts based on small record stores called Alternative Charts.
The first national chart based on distribution called the Indie Chart was published in January , at the time, the term indie was used literally to describe independently distributed records. By , indie had come to mean a particular genre, or group of subgenres, at first the term referred to intentionally non—mainstream rock acts that were not influenced by heavy metal ballads, rarefied new wave and high-energy dance anthems.
The use of alternative gained further exposure due to the success of Lollapalooza, for which festival founder, in the late s, the definition again became more specific.
Defining music as alternative is often difficult because of two conflicting applications of the word, the name alternative rock essentially serves as an umbrella term for underground music that has emerged in the wake of punk rock since the mids.
Alternative bands during the s generally played in clubs, recorded for indie labels. This approach to lyrics developed as a reflection of the social and economic strains in the United States and United Kingdom of the s, by , a majority of groups signed to independent record labels mined from a variety of rock and particularly s rock influences.
This represented a break from the futuristic, hyper-rational post-punk years 6. Power pop — Power pop is a pop rock music subgenre that draws its inspiration from s British and American rock music. It typically incorporates a combination of devices such as strong melodies, clear vocals and crisp vocal harmonies, economical arrangements. Instrumental solos are usually kept to a minimum, and blues elements are largely downplayed, in the s and s, power pop continued as a commercially modest genre but by the mids through the s, power pop was mainly in the underground.
While its cultural impact has waxed and waned over the decades, Power pop is a more aggressive form of pop rock that is based on catchy, melodic hooks and energetic moods. The Small Faces are often cited as being among the progenitors of power pop, the Whos role in the creation of power pop has been cited by singer-songwriter Eric Carmen of the Raspberries, who has said, Pete Townshend coined the phrase to define what the Who did.
For some reason, it didnt stick to the Who, but it did stick to these groups came out in the 70s that played kind of melodic songs with crunchy guitars. It just kind of stuck to us like glue, and that was okay with us because the Who were among our highest role models, other acts such as the Knickerbockers, the Easybeats and the Outsiders contributed iconic singles.
Writer John Borack has noted, Its also quite easy to draw a line from garage rock to power pop. Although the formative influences on the genre were primarily British, the bands that developed and codified power pop in the s were nearly all American. The Raspberries hit single Go All The Way is an almost perfect embodiment of the elements of power pop, the most influential group of the period may have been Big Star.
The Replacements even recorded a song entitled Alex Chilton in honor of Big Stars frontman, spurred on by the emergence of punk rock and new wave, power pop enjoyed a prolific and commercially successful period in the late s and early s. Although coined in the s, and used as early as in reference to Sweet, as the novelist Michael Chabon has written, Power pop in its essential form. Did not come into existence for a number of years after it was first identified, like so much of the greatest work turned out by popular artists of the s, true power pop is quintessential second-generation stuff.
The term was used in reference to critics favorites Elvis Costello and Nick Lowe. Some occasionally incorporated synthesizers into their music, though not to the degree as did their new wave counterparts.
Major label groups like Cheap Trick, the Cars and Blondie merged power pop influences with other styles and achieved their first mainstream success with albums released in 7. The label, however, is not a label in and of itself and it tends to be used as a vanity label the band attach to their recordings regardless of who theyre signed to at the time 8. Songwriter — A songwriter is an individual who writes the lyrics, melodies and chord progressions for songs, typically for a popular music genre such as rock or country music.
A songwriter can also be called a composer, although the term tends to be used mainly for individuals from the classical music genre. The pressure from the industry to produce popular hits means that songwriting is often an activity for which the tasks are distributed between a number of people.
For example, a songwriter who excels at writing lyrics might be paired with a songwriter with a gift for creating original melodies, pop songs may be written by group members from the band or by staff writers — songwriters directly employed by music publishers.
Some songwriters serve as their own publishers, while others have outside publishers. The old-style apprenticeship approach to learning how to write songs is being supplemented by university degrees and college diplomas, a knowledge of modern music technology, songwriting elements and business skills are necessary requirements to make a songwriting career in the s.
Several music colleges offer songwriting diplomas and degrees with music business modules, the legal power to grant these permissions may be bought, sold or transferred. This is governed by international copyright law, song pitching can be done on a songwriters behalf by their publisher or independently using tip sheets like RowFax, the MusicRow publication and SongQuarters. Skills associated with song-writing include entrepreneurism and creativity, songwriters who sign an exclusive songwriting agreement with a publisher are called staff writers.
In the Nashville country music scene, there is a staff writer culture where contracted writers work normal 9-to-5 hours at the publishing office and are paid a regular salary. This salary is in effect the writers draw, an advance on future earnings, the publisher owns the copyright of songs written during the term of the agreement for a designated period, after which the songwriter can reclaim the copyright. In an interview with HitQuarters, songwriter Dave Berg extolled the benefits of the set-up, unlike contracted writers, some staff writers operate as employees for their respective publishers.
Under the terms of work for hire agreements, the compositions created are fully owned by the publisher. In Nashville, young writers are often encouraged to avoid these types of contracts.
Staff writers are common across the industry, but without the more office-like working arrangements favored in Nashville. All the major publishers employ writers under contract, songwriter Allan Eshuijs described his staff writer contract at Universal Music Publishing as a starter deal.
His success under the arrangement eventually allowed him to found his own publishing company, so that he could. In addition to selling their songs and musical concepts for other artists to sing, songwriters need to create a number of elements for a song 9.